700 S. Waverly Rd.
Holland, MI 49423

(866) 465-5263 Pickups/Tracing
(616) 395-5000 Phone
Email Sales

Our Service Coverage

  • Headquarters in Holland, Mich.
  • Central United States and Canada

Shipping Glossary

New to the LTL world? Not sure of the difference between POD and BOL? Here's a handy glossary of shipping terms to help you out.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W


Abatement: a discount allowed for damage or overcharge in bill payment.

Aboard: Goods placed or loaded on a means of conveyance.

Absolute Minimum Charge: The minimum charge after application of all pricing terms.

Absorption: a transportation provider assumes the charges of another without any increase in charges to the shipper.

Acceptance: a time draft or bill of exchange that the payer is unconditionally obligated to pay at maturity; any agreement to buy goods under specified terms.

Accessibility: a transportation provider's ability to provide service between an origin and a destination.

Accessorial Service: a service offered in addition to goods transport, such as stopping in transit to complete loading or to partially unload or store.

Act of God: an event beyond human control.

Ad Valorem: imposed at a rate percent of value

Advanced Charge: the amount of goods or other charge on a shipment that one trasnportation provider advances to another or to the shipper to be collected from the consignee.

Advanced Receiving: a common carrier or service contractor receiving and storing exhibitors' shipments before trade show move-in date.

Advanced Shipment Notice (ASN): a list of items shipped transmitted to a customer or consignor; may include expected time of arrival.

Advanced Warehouse: a common carrier or service contractor warehouse for receiving and storing exhibitors' shipments before a trade show move-in date.

Agent: a person authorized to transact business for and in the name of another.

Agent Carrier: Non-Yellow carrier that may provide origin and/or destination service: additional pricing will apply.

Aggregate Shipment: shipments from different shippers to one consignee that are consolidated and treated as a single consignment.

Aggregate TenderRate: a reduced rate offered to a shipper who tenders two or more class-related shipments at one time and place.

Agreed Weight: the weight prescribed by agreement between transportation provider and shipper for goods shipped in certain packages or in a certain number.

Air Cargo: goods moved using air transportation.

Air Cargo Agent: an agent an airline appoints to solicit and process international air-freight shipments.

Air Cargo Containers: containers designed to conform to the inside of an aircraft; categories of containers are:

  1. air cargo pallets
  2. lower-deck containers
  3. box-type containers

Air Carrier: an enterprise that offers transportation service via air.

Air Freight: materials shipped by air.

Air Taxi: an exempt, for-hire air carrier that will fly anywhere on demand; air taxis are restricted to a maximum payload and passenger capacity per plane.

Air Transport Association of America (ATAA): a U.S. airline industry association.

Air Waybill: a BOL for domestic and international flights transporting goods to a specified destination. It is a non-negotiable instrument of air transport that serves as a shipper's receipt, indicating that the transportation provider has acceptedthe goods listed and is obligated to carry the consignment to the airport of destination according to specified conditions.

Alaskan Service: single-carrier service to and from Alaska.

All-Cargo Carrier: an air carrier that transports goods only.

Allowance: a sum granted as reimbursement or repayment or a deduction from the gross weight or value of goods.

Allowed Time: the time during which employees can't work because of factors beyond their control and for which they are paid; also dead time,down time, idle time or waiting time.

Alternative Rates: two or more rates of which the one that produces the lowest charge is applicable.

Analogous Articles: an article not found in a shipping classification but having similar characteristics to one in the classification.

Any Quantity Or AQ: Any quantity of the same product or products less than the lowest of other stated minimum weights covered by the applicable class or product rates.

Any-Quantity Rate: a rate applicable to an article in any quantity.

Applicant: the buyer of foreign goods in a letter of credit transaction; see also 'Beneficiary'.

Application of Rate: the points from, to or between which the rates and routes shown in the publication, pricing agreement or customer contract apply.

AQ: AnyQuantity

Arbitrary: a fixed amount that a transportation provider agrees to accept in dividing joint rates; a fixed amount added to or deducted from a rate from one station to make a rate from another station.

Arrival Notice: a notice, furnished to the consignee, of the arrival of a shipment.

Asia/Pacific Service: direct, time-definite service to Pacific Rim shipping regions.

Assembly: the process of erecting display component parts into a complete exhibit.

Assign: to transfer to another party.

Assignment: the transfer of rights, duties, responsibilities and benefits of an agreement, contract or financial instrument to a third party.

Association Agreement: a union contract negotiated by a group of employers through an employer's association with the union representing the employees.

Astray Goods: goods bearing marks indicating origin and destination, but separated from the waybill; see also 'Over Freight'.

At-Site: the site of an event; also on-site.

Audit: to determine the accuracy of freight bills.

Audit of Freight Bills: the process of verifying the correctness of the transportation charges shown on the transportation provider's freight bill.

Auditing: determining the correct transportation charges due the carrier; auditing involves checking the freight bill for errors, correct rate and weight.

Automated Broker Interface (ABI): an automated system used by customs brokers to communicate with U.S. Customs.

Automobile Transporter: a company certified to transport motor vehicles by hauling them on special vehicles or driving them.

Automobile Transporter Body: a truck or trailer body designed to transport other vehicles.

Axle Load: the maximum amount of weight permitted to be carried on each axle.

Axle Weight: the amount of weight transmitted to the highway by one axle.

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Back Haul: traffic moving in direction of light flow when a transportation provider's traffic on a route is heavier in one direction than the other; to haul a shipment back over part of a route it has traveled.

Backwall Booth: an exhibit that is against a building wall; also a perimeter booth.

Bailment: a contract that allows a carrier to take possession of goods without ownership; a BOL.

Balance-Due Bill: a bill rendered for undercharges.

Bale: a large, compressed bundle that is bound and often wrapped.

Balloon Products: light, bulky goods.

Bar Code: a series of lines of various widths and spacing that can be scanned electronically to identify a carton or individual item.

Bar Code Scanner: a device to read bar codes and communicate data to computer systems.

Bar Coding: a method of encoding data for fast and accurate readability.

Barge: a cargo-carrying vehicle that Inland water carriers primarily use.

Base Currency: the currency whose value is "one" whenever a quote is made between two currencies.

Basing Point: a point on which through rates to another destination are computed.

Basing Rate: a rate to be used only as a factor in making a combination through rate; a proportional rate.

Basing-Point Pricing: a pricing system that includes transportation cost from a particular city even though the shipment does not originate at the basing point.

Batch Picking: picking items from storage for more than one order at a time.

Belly Lift: amount of capacity in the belly of a passenger aircraft that is limited by the need to accommodate passenger baggage and mail (both of which have priority over shipments).

Beneficiary: the seller of goods in a letter of credit transaction; see also 'Applicant'.

Bill of Lading (BOL): a written contract between shipper and transportation provider (or their agents) that identifies the goods, who is to receive them, the place of delivery and the terms of the agreement. All goods going to a receiver at one destination in a single shipment or on one truck must be on a single BOL.

Billed Weight: the weight shown on a freight bill.

Billing: a transportation provider service center activity that determines the proper rate and total charges for a shipment and issues a freight bill.

Billing Sequence: the description of hazardous materials on a BOL that requires the following information: proper shipping name, hazard class, UN or NA number, packaging group, if applicable, and 24-hour emergency contact telephone number.

Binder: strip of cardboard, thin wood, burlap or similar material placed between layers of containers to hold a stack together.

Bituminous Material Distributor Body: an insulated tank body with means for distributing hotbituminous material under pressure; equipped with means for heating the material.

Bland Tariff Supplement: a single publication containing additions to or changes in two or more tariffs.

Blanket Bond: a bond covering a group of persons, articles or properties.

Blanket Rate: the rate applicable from and/or to a group of points or a special rate applicable on several different articles in a single shipment.

Blocking or Bracing: wood or metal supports used to keep shipments in place in or on trailers.

Blue Label: an atomic material shipment.

Bob-Tail: a tractor operating without trailer; a straight truck.

Bogey (Bogie): a two-axle assembly.

Bolster: a device fitted on a chassis or railcar to hold and secure a container.

Bond of Indemnity: an agreement made with a transportation line relieving it from liability for any action on its part for which it would otherwise be liable.

Bonded: goods that are held or transported In-Bond under Customs control until import duties or other charges are paid or to avoid paying duties or charges until later.

Bonded Warehouse: a warehouse approved by the U.S. Treasury Department, used for storing goods until duties are paid or goods are otherwise properly released.

Boneyard: a contractor's on-site area where empty crates are stored during exposition; also a dump.

Booking: arrangements with a transportation provider to accept and carry goods; a reservation of space on a trailer.

Booking Number: the number a provider or a provider's agent assigns to a certain space reservation.

Booth: one or more standard units of exhibit space; see also standard unit.

Booth Area: the amount of floor space an exhibitor occupies.

Bottlers Body: a truck or trailer body designed primarily to transport cased, bottled beverages.

Box: a trailer or semi-trailer.

Boxcar: an enclosed railcar, typically 40 to 50 feet long, used for packaged goods and some bulk products.

Bracing: to secure a shipment inside a provider's vehicle to prevent damage.

Break: a place where composite loads are separated into individual shipments and routed to different destinations; also called a breakbulk point, hub or distribution center.

Break Bulk: to separate composite loads into individual shipments and route to different destinations; loose, non-containerized goods.

Breakbulk: a large service center that separates composite loads into individual shipments and routes them to different destinations; also called a breakbulk point, break, hub or distribution center.

Breakbulk Point: a place where composite loads are separated into individual shipments and routed to different destinations; also called a break, hub or distribution center.

Broken Stowage: a loss of space caused by irregular packages; a void or empty space in a trailer.

Broker: an enterprise that owns and leases equipment; an enterprise that arranges to buy and sell transportation, goods or services.

Brokerage License: authority granted to persons to engage in the business of arranging for transportation of persons or property in interstate commerce.

Buffer Stock: a quantity of goods or articles kept in storage to safeguard against unforeseen shortages or demands.

Bulk Area: a storage area for large items that are most efficiently handled by the pallet load.

Bulk Cargo: goods not in packages or containers.

Bulk Carrier: a vessel engaged in carrying such bulk goods as petroleum, grain or ores that are not packaged, bundled, bottled or otherwise packed.

Bulk Goods: Goods not in packages or containers.

Bulkhead: a vertical partition.

Bull Rings: shipment-securing devices mounted in the floor of a trailer to secure goods.

Bundling: two or more products combined into one transaction for a single price.

Business Agent: a political, elected position in a union; salary paid by the union.

Business Days: Monday through Friday, excluding holidays

Business Hours: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., excluding Saturdays, Sundays and legal holidays except that a Consignee may designate its business hours to be other than 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. provided that such designation is made in writing ina dvance of delivery and that such designated hours include at least six hours all of which are between 8 a.m. and 5 p.m.

Business Intelligence: processed information on companies, consumers and prospects.

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Cab: the driver's compartment of a truck or tractor-trailer.

Cab-Beside-Engine Motor or Truck Tractor: a motor truck or truck tractor having the driver's compartment and controls beside the engine.

Cab-Over-Engine Motor Truck or Truck Tractor: a motor truck or truck tractor having a substantial part of its engine under the cab.

Cage: a secure, enclosed area for storing highly valuable items; a pallet-sized platform with sides that can be secured to the tines of a forklift and in which a person may ride to inventory items stored well above a warehouse floor.

Call Objective: the desired outcome of a business meeting.

Call Station: a person or company that transacts business for a trucking company in a given location where a service center is not justified. Call Stations handle calls from shippers but usually perform no shipment-handling function.

Camel Back Body: a truck body with floor curving downward at the rear.

Capacity: amount of goods that can be carried in a truck or trailer, expressed in terms of weight and cubic displacement.

Capacity Load: a quantity of goods that fills a vehicle; see also 'Cube Out' and 'WeightOut'.

Caravan: multiple exhibit shipments transported from one trade show to another so as to create a truckload, or loads, that will be transported to destination without transfer.

Caretaker: an individual accompanying a shipment requiring special attention while en route.

Cargo: the lading of a motor vehicle.

Cargo Claim: a written demand made for payment because of loss or damage alleged to have occurred while shipment was in a transportation provider's possession; demand of a refund due to overcharge.

Caribbean Service: service to and from Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and Dominican Republic.

Carmack Amendment: an amendment to the Interstate Commerce Act that specifies carrier legal liability in connection with a BOL.

Carnet: a customs document allowing special categories of goods to cross international borders duty-free.

Carpenter: a skilled craftsperson that uncrates, installs, dismantles and recreates exhibits and displays; also a stagehand.

Carpet Pig: a rectangular pallet used to move and load carpet.

Carrier: an individual, partnership or corporation engaged in transporting goods or persons for a fee.

Carrier: Any or all transportation providers, agent transportation providers, or interline transportation providers.

Carrier's Equipment: Any motor truck or other self-propelled highway vehicle, Trailer,or any combination of such highway vehicles, operated by a transportation provider.

Carrier's Shipping Service Center: the shipping depot or station of a transportation provider at which shipments are ordinarily loaded or unloaded.

Carrier's Lien: transportation provider's claim on property it has transported as security for charges.

Cartage: hauling goods between locations in the same city, town, suburb or local area.

Cartage (Local): hauling goods between sites in the same or contiguous municipalities.

Cash Against Documents (CAD): a method of paying for goods in which documents transferring title are given to the buyer on cash payment to an intermediary acting for the seller.

Cash in Advance (CIA): a method of payment for goods before they are shipped.

Cash on Delivery (COD): cash or check paid for goods at delivery, which may include the cost ofshipping.

Cash with Order(CWO): a payment method where cash is paid when a customer buys a product, and the transaction becomes binding on the buyer and seller.

Center of Gravity (CG): the equilibrium point of the total weight of a trailer or product.

Certificate of Inspection: an authoritative statement that merchandise (such as perishables) was in good condition immediately before its shipment.

Certificate of Insurance: an authoritative statement that goods have been insured.

Certificate of Origin: an authoritative statement regarding the national origin of goods.

Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity: authority or certificate granted by state regulatory agencies and required of certain for-hire carriers.

Certificate of Weight:an authoritative statement of the weight of a shipment.

Charged Back: an expense incurred by one party that another party is obligated to pay.

Charges (Payment of): ordinarily, unless specific arrangements have been made, a transportation provider is not permitted to deliver or relinquish possession at destination of any goods transported by it until all tariff rates and charges have been paid. Transportation providers may relinquish possession of goods in advance of payment of tariff charges and may extend credit for seven days.

Chassis: a frame with wheels and locking devices to secure a container for movement.

Cherrypicker: equipment capable of lifting a person to a given height; also a high jacker.

Circuitous Route: an indirect route.

Cityliner: a truck used in the city for pickup and delivery; also a cub, pickup or shag.

Claim: a written demand for payment due to loss or damage alleged to have occurred while shipment was in possession of the transportation provider; a refund demand due to overcharge.

Claim Examiner: one who adjusts or settles cargo claims made against a company.

Claim Tracer: a request for information concerning the status of a claim.

Claimant: a person or company filing a claim.

Class and Commodity Tariff: a tariff containing class and commodity rates.

Class I Motor Carriers: common or contract motor carriers of property that have annual carrier operating revenues of $5 million or more.

Class II Motor Carriers: common or contract motor carriers of property that have annual carrier operating revenues of $1 million but not more than $5 million.

Class Ill Motor Carriers: common or contract motor carriers of property that have average gross operating revenues of less that $1 million from motor carrier operations.

Class Rate: a transportation charge set for a group of products; unless an article is given a special rate, it is grouped into a class; see also 'Classification Rating'.

Class Tariff: a schedule of rates that contains only class rates.

Classification: a publication containing shipping ratings; see also 'Classification Rating'.

Classification (products): a list of articles and the classes to which they are assigned for applying a class rate together with governing rules and regulations.

Classification (rating): the class to which an article is assigned for applying transportation charges.

Clean BOL: a BOL the transportation provider receives for merchandise in good condition that does not bear any notations, such as 'Shipper Load and Count', etc.

Clear Record: a record that shows that a shipment was handled without loss or damage.

Clearance: the weight or size limitation of a bridge or tunnel.

Clearing House: an organization set up to process and collect bills for participating truckingc ompanies.

Cleat: a strip of wood or metal used to afford additional strength, to prevent warping or to hold in position.

Clip-On: refrigeration equipment that is attachable to an insulated container or trailer that does not have integral refrigeration.

Closed Van: a unit with metal sides and top completely enclosing the goods being transported.

COD: Collecton Delivery

Collect Shipment: a shipment where the transportation provider collects shipping charges and advances.

Collector of Customs: a representative of the U.S. Treasury Department acting for the government in connection with foreign traffic.

Combi: a part-passenger, part-shipment aircraft.

Combi lift: shipping capacity of a "combi" aircraft that is based on the percentage of main-deck lift occupied by pallets instead of seats. Passenger priorities drive combi aircraft flight timing and routing.

Combination: a motor-truck or truck-tractor coupled to one or more trailers (including semi-trailers).

Combination Rate: a rate made by combining two or more rates in different publications.

Combination Through Rate: a through rate made by combining two or more rates in different publications.

Commercial Invoice: a statement of characteristics and value of goods being shipped.

Commercial Zone: a geographical area of commercial influence of a specified point.

Commodity: any article of a shipment; goods shipped.

Commodity Exempt: an item that may be transported in interstate commerce without operating authority or published rates.

Commodity Rate: a special rate on a special type of goods. A commodity rate replaces a class rate for the goods, except when the tariff specifies the alternative use of lass and commodity rates.

Commodity Tariff: a tariff containing only commodity rates.

Common Carrier: a company required to serve the general public on demand, at reasonable rates without discrimination.

Common Carrier, Irregular Route: a common carrier whose routes and schedules are not regulated by government agencies.

Common Ownership: ownership of one mode of transportation by another; federal law restricts such ownership.

Common Tariff: a tariff that gives the charges of two or more transportation lines.

CompanyTruck: an exhibitor's vehicle for transporting material to and from tradeshows.

Competitive Intelligence: processed information on known competitors.

Competitive Point: a place where two or more companies compete for business.

Competitive Rate: a charge established to meet the competition of another transportation provider.

Competitive Traffic: business for which two or more transportation providers compete.

Compound Average Growth Rate (CAGR): the average percentage growth rate per year over a multi-year period, with each year's absolute growth factored into the calculation of the succeeding year's growth rate. Growth can be positive or negative.

Concealed Loss or Damage: loss or damage to the contents of a package that is not apparent until opened.

Concentration Point: a point at which less-than-truckload shipments are brought together to be forwarded as a truckload.

Concrete Mixer: a truckbody designed to mix and agitate concrete.

Connecting Carrier: acarrier that has a direct physical connection with another or forms a connecting link between two or more transportation providers.

Consign: to send or address goods to another.

Consignee: the person or organization to whom goods are shipped.

Consignee: The person, firm or corporation shown on the BOL as the party to whom the transportation provider delivers the property.

Consignee Mark: a symbol placed on packages for export, generally consisting of a geometric shape with designation letter and/or numbers for identification.

Consignment: a shipment.

Consignor: one who byships articles.

Consignor: The person, firm or corporation shown on the bill of lading as the shipper of the property received by the transportation provider for transportation.

Consolidate: putting together several loads bound for the same destination.

Consumer Show: an exposition that is open to the public for an admission fee; also, a public show.

Consumption Entry: goods imported for use in the United States.

Container: a truck or trailer body provided with means for ready removal from and attachment to a vehicle.

Container (Van Body Type): a truck or trailer body provided with means for ready removal from and attachment to a vehicle. Containers may be ventilated, insulated, flat rack, refrigerated, vehicle rack, open top or bulk type; may be 20', 40', 45', 48'or 53' in length and 8'6' or 9'6' in height.

Containerization: shipping system based on large shipment-carrying containers that can be interchanged between trucks, trains and ships without re-handling contents.

Continuous Seals: seals on a truck that remain intact during the movement of the truck from point of origin to destination; if broken in transit that it was done by the proper authority and without opportunity for loss to occur before new seals were applied.

Contraband: prohibited goods.

Contract: a legally binding agreement between two or more parties for reciprocal obligations.

Contract Carriers: a company that engages in for-hire transportation of property under an individual contract or agreement with one of a limited number of shippers.

Contracting: a system in which all or part of the product or the work is sublet to contractors.

Contractor: an individual or organization that provides services; either a general service contractor or a specialty contractor.

Convention Center: a municipal or privately owned exposition building that is purpose-built or converted; also a building or hall

Convertible: a truck or trailer that can be used either as a flatbed or open top through the use of removable side panels.

Corner Booth: an exhibit space with exposure on at least two aisles; a premium is charged for corner locations.

Corporate Exhibit: an institutional exhibit telling the company story without marketing a specific product or service.

Cost and Freight(C&F): a term of sale where the seller is responsible for costs incurred in transporting goods to the destination port but is not responsible for marine insurance, customs clearance or transportation to the final destination.

Cost and Insurance(C&I): a pricing term that indicates these costs are included in the quoted price.

Cost, Insurance and Freight (CIF): a term of sale where the seller is responsible for costs incurred in transporting goods to the destination port and for marine insurance but is not responsible for customs clearance or transportation to the final destination.

Cost, Insurance, Freight and Commission (CIF&C): a pricing term that indicates these costs are included in the quoted price.

Cover Service: protection for shipments from extreme temperatures.

Craftsperson: an individual who provides actual services on a show floor; usually a unionized worker; also a laborer.

Crating List: the contents of what is enclosed inside a crate.

Cube Out: to use the cubic capacity of a trailer or truck without necessarily using the full-weight capacity.

Cubic Capacity: the volumetric carrying capacity of a truck, aircraft or container measured in cubic feet. One cubic foot equals approximately 0.028 cubic meters. One cubic meter equals approximately 35.315 cubic feet.

Current Ratio: relationship of current liability to current assets.

Customer Master File(CMF): an electronic repository of consumer profiles.

CWT: Per Hundred Pounds

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Dead Axle: an axle that supports part of the vehicle weight but does not transmit driving force to the wheels; a non-powered axle.

Dead Time: time during which employees can't work because of factors beyond their control and for which they are paid; also allowed time, down time, idle time or waiting time.

Dead Head: movement of freight without charges or movement of empty trailer.

Debtor: person obligated to pay the accessorial or shipping charges to transportation provider whether Consignor, Consignee or Third-Party.

Declared Value: a shipper's stated value of entire shipment in terms of dollars.

Decorator: a craftsperson used to install drape, fabric, signs, etc.; also a general-service contractor.

Deferred Air freight: long-haul air freight that waits for available space at a reduced rate.

Deferred Rebate: a transportation provider's return of part of the shippping charges to a shipper in exchange for the shipper giving all or most of his shipments to the transportation provider over a specified period of time; payment is deferred for a further similar period during which the shipper must continue to give all or most shipments to the rebating carrier.

Deficit Weight: less than the minimum weight requirement.

Delivered Duty Clearance (DDC): a term of sale where the seller is responsible for all transportation costs and for customs clearance but is not responsible for duties.

Delivered Duty Paid (DDP): a term of sale where the seller is responsible for all transportation costs, customs clearance and duties.

Delivered Duty Unpaid (DDU): a term of sale where the seller is responsible only for transportation costs.

Delivering Carrier: the transportation line by which a shipment is delivered to a consignee.

Delivery: the act of transferring possession, such as the transfer of property from shipper to transportation provider, one transportation provider to another or transportation provider to consignee.

Delivery Order: shipment owner-issued instructions directing that goods be released or shipped to a specified party.

Demurrage: detention of a shipping vehicle or container beyond a stipulated time; the payment made for such delay.

Density: the weight of an article in kilograms per cubic meter or pounds per cubic foot; the ratio of mass to bulk or volume. Density is represented as either product density or stowed density.

Department of Transportation (DOT): federal agency that regulates the highway transportation of freight, including goods designated as hazardous material.

Deregulation: modification or elimination of government rules and regulations that usually requires new statutory language.

Destination: the place to which a shipment is consigned.

Detention: a charge made for a vehicle held by or for shipper or consignee for loading or unloading, for forwarding directions or for any other purpose; see also 'Demurrage'.

Devanning: unloading of a trailer or container.

Differential Rate: the amount added to or subtracted from a through (basing) rate to make a rate. For example, the rate Chicago to Philadelphia is made up of the basis rate(Chicago to New York) less the differential basis (or rate) to Philadelphia.

Differential Route: a route for which there is no published rate; the rate must be computed from published rates on other routes.

Direct: via the route of a single transportation provider; often used as one component of a freight rate.

Direct Costs: the sum of end of line (dock, P&D, clerical), distribution center, linehaul and account services costs; activity costs with a clear link to the freight bill.

Dispatching: the scheduling and control of trucks for pickup and delivery or travel between service centers.

Display House: a company that manufactures trade show exhibits; additional services may also include exhibit warehousing and shipping.

Display Rules & Regulations: a set of specifications for exhibit construction endorsed by all big exhibit industry associations; also the rules that may be adopted by show management.

Distance Rate: rate that is applicable according to distance.

Distribution: the act of delivering shipments within a city or an area beyond.

Distribution: property segregation and delivery from a composite truckload or other unit of volume.

Distribution Center: a terminal that separates composite loads into individual shipments and routes them to different destinations; also called a break, breakbulk or hub.

Distribution Channels: the links through which shipments flow from shipper to consignee.

Diversion: any shipment relinquished to a shipper, consignee or his agent at point of origin or intermediate point or before the shipment has reached its ultimate destination; reconsignment.

Divert: to change the route of a shipment in transit; reconsignment.

Dock: the platform where trucks are loaded and unloaded.

Dock Marshall: an employee of a convention center who is responsible for all activity at the loading/unloading dock before, during and after a tradeshow.

Dock Receipt: a receipt given for a shipment received or delivered at a pier or dock. When delivery of a foreign shipment is completed, the dock receipt is surrendered to the transportation line and a BOL is issued.

Docket Number: the number a granting authority issues for interstate operations.

Dolly: an auxiliary axle assembly equipped with a fifth wheel that is used to convert a semi-trailer to a full trailer; a small platform on rollers or wheels used to handle goods in a warehouse.

Double Bottom: a combination of two semi-trailers or a semi-trailer and a full trailer pulled by a tractor.

Doubles Trailer: A trailer of 29 feet or less in length or of only 27 lineal feet or less of loading space when trailer exceeds 29 feet.

Doubles Trailer: any vehicle less than 35 feet in length handled as one unit, propelled or drawn by a single power unit.

Down Time: time during which employees can't work because of factors beyond their control and for which they are paid; also dead time, allowed time, idle time or waiting time.

Drag Line: a mechanized system consisting of a continuous chain, either overhead of recessed in the floor, used in a service center to move shipments on carts from one part of the platform to another.

Dray Body: a truck body with floor curving downward at the rear; a camel-back body.

Drayage: the charge made for hauling goods on carts, drays or trucks.

Drayage Contractor: the party responsible for performing drayage at show sites.

Drayage Form: the form used to specify materials handling.

Drayer: the official show handler designated to move exhibits from truck dock to booth space; usually handled by general service contractor.

Draying: the charge made for handling goods.

Drive Axle: an axle that supports part of the vehicle weight and transmits a driving force to the wheels; a powered axle.

Dromedary: a vehicle which combines features of a truck and truck tractor; it has a van body at the rear of the cab and a fifth wheel at the rear of the body.

Drop-Frame Trailer: a truck trailer designed with minimum floor-to-highway distance, except for a raised section for rear wheel housings and a raised forward section.

Dry Bulk Container: a container used for free-flowing solids; used in conjunction with a tilt chassis.

Due-Bill: a bill the transportation provider renders for under charges.

Dump: on-site area where empty crates are stored during exposition; also a boneyard.

Dump Body: truck or trailer body that can be tilted to discharge its load by gravity.

Dunnage: material used to protect or support goods in trucks. Dunnage weight is shown separately on the BOL.

Duty: a tax a government levies on the import, export, use or consumption of goods.

Duty Drawback: recovery of duties paid on imported goods that are used to produce American goods for export.

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Electrical Contractor: the contract company that provides electrical services to exhibitors.

Elkins Act: a law providing penalties for giving rebates and other violations of the Interstate Commerce Act.

Embargo: to prohibit shipment acceptance and handling; a formal notice that certain goods will not be accepted.

Eminent Domain: the sovereign power to take property for public use with reasonable compensation.

Employee Identification Number (EIN): the number assigned to a firm or to an individual for tax reporting purposes.

Empty Repo: empty repositioning; the movement of empty containers.

End-of-Line (EOL): a service center that receives inbound shipments from a breakbulk for delivery and sends outbound freight that has been picked up to the breakbulk; a satellite service center.

Enplaned Weight: the originated weight multiplied by the number of times the freight was loaded onto an aircraft.

Enroute: on the way; intransit.

Entry (Customs): a statement of the kinds, quantities and values of goods imported together with duties due, if any, and declared before a customs or other designated officer.

Environmental ProtectionAgency (EPA): a federal agency that regulates hazardous substances in the environment.

Estimated Weight: the weight specifically stated in publications for goods shipped.

Ex Works: a term of sale where a seller is responsible for having goods available only at its premises.

Exceptions of Classification: a publication containing classification ratings and rules different from the classification ratings and rules contained in a primary classification.

Excess Value Liability: An amount of value above a transportation provider's maximum liability defined herein.

Exchange BOL: a BOL issued in exchange for another BOL.

Exclusive: any agreement that limits who may provide services.

Exclusive Use of Truck or Trailer: a request a shipper makes on the BOL for the complete use of a trailer.

Exempt Carrier: trucks hauling goods that are exempt from economic regulation; the largest part of these transportation providers transport agricultural goods or seafood.

Exhibit: all of the display materials and product housed in a booth; the terms "exhibit" and "booth" are often used interchangeably.

Exhibit Designer/Producer: the company responsible for designing and building exhibits.

Exhibit Directory: a list of exhibitors and booth locations.

Exhibit Manager: the person in charge of an individual exhibit; see also show manager.

Exhibit Producer: an individual or company that designs and/or builds exhibits.

Exhibit Service: single-source shipping service from convention centers to North America.

Exhibitor: the person,company, organization or group that promotes products and/or services at trade shows or conventions.

Exhibitor Kit: the general show information, including labor/service order forms, electrical service information, move-in and move-out dates, force shipment cut-off time, shipment-handling charges, show rules and regulations and other information pertinent to an exhibitor's participation in an exposition; also contains information regarding recommended carriers.

Exhibitor-Appointed Contractor: any company other than the designated contractor providing a service to an exhibitor.

Expedite: to accelerate transportation.

Expiration Notice: a notice that all, or some part of a publication, will expire at a stated time.

Export: any traffic having a subsequent movement to another country.

Export: Shipments originating from the 48 contiguous United States that are:

  • consigned to points outside the contiguous 48 United States and moved in part by an ocean or air carrier, or
  • consigned to ocean or air carriers for delivery outside the contiguous 48 United States, or
  • consigned to a warehouse and within 12 months consigned to points outside the contiguous 48 United States.

Exposition Manager: the person responsible for all aspects of planning, promoting and producing an exposition; also the show manager, show organizer and show producer.

Express Body: an open-box trucking body.

Express Traffic: envelopes and small packages(less than 45 kilograms) moving on a time-definite (often time-critical) basis.

Extended Service: a service offered in addition to the transportation of goods, such as stopping in-transit to complete loading or to partially unload or storage.

Extraordinary Value: articles exceeding $10.00 per pound per package or a transportation provider liability exceeding $100,000 per incident per shipper, whichever produces the lesser charge.

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Fabrication: exhibit building or construction.

FAK: Freight, All Kinds

False Billing: describing goods on shipping documents so as to misrepresent the actual contents of lading.

Feeder Services: short transportation lines running from a truck line into nearby areas to collect and distribute goods for a main line; usually 25 to 35 miles long.

Fifth Wheel: part of a coupling device mounted on tractor that engages and locks with a circular steel pin on a trailer that facilitates semi-trailer attachment.

Firkin: one-fourth of a barrel.

Fixed Cost: expenses that do not vary with an increase or decrease in traffic; also referred to as fixed operating costs.

Flammable Liquids: liquids that give off vapors capable of burning; also called inflammable liquids.

Flat Bed: a semi-trailer with no sides with a floor of standard height from the ground.

Floater: a worker used to help assigned labor for short periods.

Floor Load: the maximum weight per square foot a floor can support; also the maximum amount of power available from floor outlets and ports.

Floor Manager: the person that supervises the installation, dismantling and operation of an exhibit area.

Floor Order: the order for labor or services to be placed on site.

Force Freight: an exhibit shipment that the trade show house transportation provider routes if the exhibitor's designated transportation provider does not pick up the shipment before the force freight cut-off time.

Force Majeure: exemption clause for non-fulfillment of contract terms because of acts of God.

Force Notation: a notation made on an original BOL indicating the force freight and its time and date.

Foreign Trade Zone (FTZ): an enclosed area in or near a port of entry that is outside the customs jurisdiction of United States Customs; a free port.

Fork Lift: a machine used to pick up and move goods loaded on pallets or skids.

Forty-foot Equivalent Unit (FEU): a unit of measure for container, trailer or service center capacity. In weight terms, one FEU is typically equivalent to 1.4 TEUs.

Foul BOL: a BOL that states that goods were damaged when received.

Free Along Ship (FAS): a term of sale where the seller is responsible for transporting goods to the destination port.

Free on Board (FOB): a term of sale where responsibility for expenses and risk for goods is passed from seller to buyer. Because this term is not always used precisely, it is best to qualify it to show exactly what is covered.

Free Port: an enclosed area in or near an entry port that is outside the customs jurisdiction of U.S. Customs; a Foreign Trade Zone.

Free Time: the period allowed the owner to accept delivery before storage charges begin to accrue.

Freight: merchandise hauled by a transportation line.

Freight All Kind (FAK): the pooling of different goods to simplify rating or pricing.

Freight Bill: the document for a common-carrier shipment that describes the goods, charges, taxes and whether prepaid or collect; charges the shipper pays are called prepaid freight bills and charges collected at destination are called destination or collect freight bills.

Freight Bill Number: the number a transportation provider issues to each shipment, which is used for electronic shipment tracking to its destination; the PRO number.

Freight Charge: payment due for product transportation.

Freight Claim: a demand on a transportation provider for payment of overcharge or loss or damage that a shipper or consignee sustained; a cargo claim.

Freight Classification: a list of articles and the classes to which they are assigned for applying class rate, together with governing rules and regulations.

Freight Desk: handles inbound and outbound exhibit materials on site.

Freight Forwarder: one who assembles small shipments into one large shipment that is then tendered to a regulated over-the-road transportation provider. On reaching destination, the shipment is separated into small shipments.

Freight Line Charge: the cost of transporting goods.

Freight-Astray: a shipment miscarried or unloaded at the wrong service center, billed and forwarded to the correct service center, free of charges, because it was astray.

Freighter Lift: capacity on the main and lower decks of an all-cargo aircraft which is more expensive than belly lift because all costs are allocated to cargo. Freighter lift can handle large shipments; flight timing and routing is based on shipping demand.

Full Cycle Asset Management: management of totes, skids and vehicle saddles with unique product or ID numbers from a consumer to the user and back to the consumer.

Full Trailer: truck trailer with wheels on both ends (as compared with a semi-trailer in which the front rests on the rear of the power unit).

Furniture Van Body: truck body designed primarily to transport furniture or household goods; usually of drop-frame construction.

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Gateway: a point where goods moving from one territory to another is interchanged between transportation lines.

General-Service Contractor: the company hired to handle the overall coordination, logistics and sub-contracting of ancillary services and decoration of an exhibit hall.

Grain Body: a low-side, open-top truck or trailer body designed to transport dry fluid products.

Gross payload: payload weight and tare weight.

Gross Square Feet: total space available in exhibit hall.

Gross Ton: 2,240 pounds; a long ton.

Gross Weight: the weight of an article, together with the weight of its container and packing material; the weight of the truck, together with the weight of its contents.

Groupage: small shipment consolidation.

Gypsy: an independent operator who transports goods in his own truck.

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Hall: the generic term for an exposition center; also an individual area within a center (one center could have multiple halls).

Harmonized Service: an international freight classification system.

Hazard Class: a numerical designation of the primary transportation hazard.

Hazard Label: a diamond-shaped placard that portrays each of the nine hazard classes.

Hazardous Material (HM): a substance or material that has been determined by the DOT to be capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety and property when transported in commerce. A listing of hazardous materials is in 49 CFR 172.101.

Head Haul: traffic moving in the direction of heavy flow when a transportation provider's traffic on a route is heavier in one direction than the other.

Heater Service: protection by heat of freight that would be damaged by freezing.

Heavy Duty Driver: a driver doing direct city P&D work with road equipment.

Heavy Load Service: service in select lanes for shipments weighing 7,500 to 19,999 pounds and/or occupying 14 to 24 linear feet of trailer space.

Heavy Specialized Carrier: a trucking company franchised to transport articles which, because of size, shape, weight or other inherent characteristics, require special equipment for loading, unloading or transporting.

Heavyweight traffic: industrial consignments weighing 45 kilograms or more.

HGB: Household Goods Carriers Bureau Agent

High Cube: a trailer body with above-average cubic content.

HighJacker: equipment capable of lifting a person or persons to a given height;also a cherry picker.

Hitchment: the marrying of two or more parts of a shipment from different origins, moving under one BOL, from one shipper to one consignee.

HMES: Holland Inc.

Holidays: In the United States, national holidays are: New Years Day, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and the day after, Christmas Eve Day, Christmas Day or any other day generally observed as a holiday by the transportation provider at the point where the service is performed.

In Canada, national holidays are: New Years Day, Good Friday, Victoria Day, Canada Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day, Christmas Day, Boxing Day or any other day generally observed as a holiday by the transportation provider at the point where the service is performed.

In Mexico, national holidays are: New Years Day, Constitution Day, Benito Juarez Birthday, Good Friday, Labor Day, Independence Day, Revolution Day, Christmas Day, New Years Eve Day or any other day generally observed as a holiday by the transportation provider at the point where the service is performed.

When a holiday falls on Sunday, the following Monday will be considered a holiday; when a holiday falls on Saturday, the preceding Friday will be considered a holiday.

Hopper Body: a truck or trailer body designed primarily to transport horses.

Hostler: one who moves and services trucks; one who maintains trucks.

Hot Load: an emergency shipment needed in a hurry.

Hot Tag: a shipment requiring special handling for earlier-than-normal delivery service.

House Carrier: transportation providers recommended and promoted to handle transportation services for exhibitors at a trade show; also a preferred or primary transportation provider.

Hub: a service center where composite loads are separated into individual shipments and routed to different destinations; a service center serving end-of-line service centers; the 'hub'of a hub-and-spoke system is the break, breakbulk or distribution center, and the 'spokes' lead to the EOL terminals it serves.

Hundred Weight: 100 pounds (United States) or 112 pounds (United Kingdom), abbreviated CWT.

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Icing: refrigeration applied to preserve perishables.

Icing Charge: a charge made for icing perishable freight.

Idle Time: time during which employees can't work because of factors beyond their control and for which they are paid; also dead time, down time, allowed time or waiting time.

Import: any traffic having a prior movement from another country.

Import: shipments originating outside the 48 contiguous United States that are:

  • consigned to points within the contiguous 48 United States and moved in part by an ocean or air carrier, or
  • consigned from ocean or air carriers for delivery within the contiguous 48 United States, or
  • consigned to a warehouse and within 12 months consigned to points within the contiguous 48 United States.

In-Bond: shipments moving under U.S. Customs bond.

Incentive Rate: a lower-than-usual tariff rate assessed because a shipper or consignee offers a greater volume of shipments; incentive rates are assessed for the part of business exceeding the normal volume.

Indemnity Bond: an agreement made with a transportation line relieving it from liability for any action on its part for which it would otherwise be liable; also a bond of indemnity.

Indirect Expenses:t erminal, group/area and corporate overhead; costs incurred as a result of being in business; activity costs that do not have a clear link to the freight bill.

Individual Tariff: a tariff a transportation provider issues.

Inflammable Liquids: liquids that give off vapors capable of burning; also flammable liquids.

Inherent Advantage: a natural or innate advantage; inherent advantages of motor carriers over other modes of carriers include flexibility, ability to make delivery of goods at more convenient points and relatively low first cost of initiating operations.

Initial Carrier: the transportation line to which a shipper gives a shipment.

Initial Point: the point at which a shipment originates.

Inland Carrier: a carrier that hauls export or import traffic between ports and inland points.

Inline Booth: exhibit space with booths on either side or back; also an inside booth. Exhibit space with exhibit booths on either side or back; also an inline booth.

Installation &Dismantling (I&D): the set-up and tear down of exhibits.

Installation Contractor: the preferred contractor (designated by show management) or an independent contractor (hired directly by exhibitor) that is responsible for labor supervision and coordination for installation and dismantling.

Insulated Van Body: a closed van with insulated body to protect goods from heat and cold.

Insurance Requirements: the types and levels of insurance that a transportation provider, freight forwarder or property broker must have in effect.

Insurance Status: compliance with the types and levels of insurance that a transportation provider, freight forwarder or property broker must have in effect.

Insurance, Freight: coverage for the perils that goods may encounter in transportation.

Integrated Carriers: transportation providers that own or exclusively control air and ground assets used to handle a shipment all the way from retail point-of-sale to final delivery.

Interchange: transfer of freight from one transportation provider to another.

Interchange Points: a service center where freight is transferred from one transportation provider to another.

Interline: between two or more transportation providers.

Interline Carrier: transportation provider that may provide origin and/or destination service.

Interline Freight: goods moving from point of origin to destination over the lines of two or more transportation providers.

Intermediate Carrier: a transportation line, over which a shipment moves but on which neither the point of origin nor destination is noted.

Intermodal: goods movement between motor, air, sea and rail transportation; equipment that is compatible with multiple transportation systems; multimodal.

International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG): regulations that govern the transportation of hazardous material by water outside the territorial boundaries of the United States.

Interstate: Origin and destination points are not in the same state.

Interstate Commerce Act: an act of Congress regulating the practices, rates and rules of transportation lines engaged in interstate traffic.

Interstate Commerce or Traffic: traffic having origin in one state and destination in another.

Intrastate: Origin and destination points are in the same state

Intrastate Commerce or Traffic: traffic having origin and destination in the same state.

Irregular Common Carrier: a common carrier whose routes and schedules are not regulated by government agencies; also a common carrier, irregular route.

Island Booth: a booth that is exposed on all sides to an aisle.

Issuing Carrier: a transportation provider that publishes a tariff or issues a BOL or other document.

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Jacket: a wood or fiber cover placed around such containers as cans or bottles.

Johnson Bar: a long-handled pry bar with metal tip and wheels used in shipment handling.

Joint Rate: a rate for moving a single shipment over two or more independent transportation lines, which cooperate to offer a through service; the shipment travels on one BOL; also a joint through rate.

Joint Route: a route established by two or more transportation providers for traffic through movement.

Joint Through Rate: a rate for moving a single shipment over two or more independent transportation lines, which cooperate to offer a through service; the shipment travels on one BOL; also a joint rate.

Joint Traffic: traffic moving between stations on two, different transportation lines.

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King Pin: a coupling pin centered on the front underside of a chassis; couples to the tractor.

Kitting: the process of grouping or packaging individual items together to create a special single item.

Knocked Down: an article taken apart, folded or telescoped so as to reduce its normal cubage when set up or assembled by one-third.

Knocked Down Flat: an article taken apart, folded or telescoped so as to reduce its normal cubage when set up or assembled by two-thirds.

Known Damage: damage discovered before or at delivery.

Known Loss: a loss discovered before or at tdelivery.

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Labor: contracted workers who perform services.

Labor Call: method of securing union employees; the time specified for labor to report; the minimum amount for which labor must be paid.

Labor Desk: location in exhibit hall where exhibitors can order labor.

Laborer: an individual who provides actual services on the show floor; also a craftsperson.

Lading: that which constitutes a load; the shipments in a vehicle.

Land Bridge: the movement of containers by ship-rail-ship on Japan-to-Europe moves; ships move containers to the U.S. Pacific Coast, rails move containers to an East Coast port, and ships deliver containers to Europe.

Landed Cost: the total cost of a product delivered at a given location; the production cost plus the transportation cost to the customer's location.

Landing Gear: a retractable support fixed to the chassis front that is used when the tractor is removed; also called a trailer support or legs.

Lash Barges: covered barges that transportation providers load on ocean-going ships for movement to other countries.

LASH Vessel: a ship measuring at least 820 feet long with a deck crane able to load and unload barges through a stern section that projects over the water.

Lawful Rate: any rate constructed and published in accordance with the laws, rules and regulations administered by state commissions.

Layover Time: the non-working time that a road driver spends away from his home service center before being dispatched to another destination.

Leg: all consecutive segments of a route booked through the same carrier that includes an origin, destination and carrier; also a Bookable Leg.

Legs: a retractable support fixed to the chassis front that is used when the tractor is removed; also called a trailer support or landing gear.

Lessee: a person or firm to whom a lessor grants a lease.

Lessor: a person or firm that grants a lease.

Less-than-Container Load (LCL): a shipment that is less than an entire container.

Less-than-Truckload (LTL): a shipment that is less than that required for the application of truckload rate.

Less-Than-Truckload Rate: a rate applicable to a less-than-truckload shipment.

Letter of Credit (LC): an agreement by an issuing bank to make payment for goods.

Lien: a legal claim on goods for the satisfaction of some debt or duty.

Lift: shipment capacity generated by aircraft or ships.

Lift on, Lift off (LO/LO): ocean vessels that are loaded and unloaded with a crane.

Lift Tail-Gate: a powered tail-gate capable of lifting a load from street level to the level of the truck or trailer floor.

Lighter: a barge-type vessel used to carry goods between shore and ship.

Lighter Aboard Ship (LASH): a covered barge on board an ocean-going ship.

Lighterage: the cost of loading or unloading a vessel by means of barges.

Limited Quantity: a hazardous material that, because of the quantity of material and type of packaging container, may be exempt from labeling requirements if it is not classified as a 6.1 poison.

Line Item: a specific and unique identifier assigned to a product by the responsible enterprise.

Linehaul: goods movement between cities, excluding pickup and delivery service.

Linehaul Freight Charges: The rate or charge for transporting a shipment from an origin to a destination as stated on the bill of lading and will not include any accessorial, storage or service center charges.

Linehaul Truck: vehicles used to haul goods long distances, usually a tractor-trailer combination of three or more axles.

Liner Service: international water carriers that ply fixed routes on published schedules.

Link: the transportation method used to connect nodes (plants, warehouses) in a logistics system.

Liquidation: finalization of the import process for a shipment.

Live: the equipment operator stays with the trailer or boxcar while it is being loaded or unloaded.

Live Axle: an axle driven by an engine.

Livestock Body: a truck or trailer body designed primarily to transport livestock.

Load Factor: a measure of operating efficiency air carriers use to determine used capacity percentage.

Load Ratio: the relation between loaded and empty miles.

Loading: furnishing the BOL, forwarding directions or other documents necessary for forwarding the shipment; notification that the vehicle is loaded and ready for forwarding.

Loadlock: a metal brace to secure partial loads in trailers and railcars.

Local: the organization of employees in one area, company or group of companies that is chartered by and affiliated with a national or international union.

Local Cartage Carrier: a company that transports property within the commercial zone of a municipality (or contiguous cities); the pickup and delivery service for a linehaul transportation provider.

Local Delivery: those points served direct that are within 25 miles of the original destination.

Local Rate: a rate applying between service centers on the same transportation line.

Local Reconsignment: a change in route within the local (direct) delivering area of the original destination service center.

Local Tariff: a tariff containing rates applicable only between service centers on the same transportation line.

Log Body: a truck or trailer body designed primarily to transport logs or other loads that may be boomed or chained in place.

Log Book: a book that truck drivers keep that contains daily records of hours, routes, etc.

Long Ton: 2,240 pounds.

Loose: goods that are not packed.

Low Boy: a semi-trailer with no sides and with the floor of the unit close to the ground; usually used in transporting heavy machinery or large objects.

Low-Bed Trailer: open truck trailer constructed to provide a low platform height; designed to transport extremely heavy or bulky goods.

LTL: Less-than-truckload. A quantity of goods weighing less than 20,000 pounds or occupying less than the full visible capacity of a doubles trailer or a standard trailer, and whose rate or rating is subject to a minimum weight of less than 20,000 pounds or is less than TL.

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M: Thousand pounds

Main Deck Lift: shipment capacity on the main deck of a combi aircraft. Main-deck lift can accept wider and taller loads than belly lift.

Malpractice: giving a customer illegal preference to attract business; includes rebates, undercubing and improper rating.

Manifest: a document describing a shipment or the contents of a vehicle or ship.

Manifest Miles: miles traveled in dispatched revenue service between service centers.

Marginal Cost: the cost to produce one additional unit of output; the change in total variable cost resulting from a one-unit change in output.

Mark: slang expression used to refer to a shipment, as in 'Large Mark' or '4 Marks'.

Marks and Numbers: letters, numbers or characters placed on a package for identification.

Marshalling Yard: a trailer yard or lot where all incoming and outgoing transportation providers report before and after pickups and deliveries at show site; also a trailer-staging area.

Master Air Waybill (MAWB): a BOL air carriers issue to their customers.

Material Index: the ratio of the sum of the localized raw material weights to the weight of the finished product.

Material Safety DataSheet (MSDS): an information bulletin that identifies the properties of chemicals or hazardous ingredients.

Maximum Rate: the highest rate that may be charged.

MC: Minimum charge

Memorandum BOL: the third part of a multiple-set BOL.

Mileage Rate: rates applied according to distance.

Mileage Tariff: a tariff containing rates applied in accordance to distance.

Minimum Charge: the least charge for which a shipment will be handled.

Minimum Rate: the lowest rate that may be charged.

Minimum Truckload Weight: the weight at which a shipment is handled at a truckload rate.

Mixed Truckload: a truckload of different articles combined into a single shipment.

Mixed Truckload Rates: a rate applicable to a truckload of different articles in a single consignment.

Mixing Privileges: mixing truckload goods according to various combinations and alternatives; the rate is calculated as if each of the articles comprising the mixed truckload were shipped as truckloads.

Mode: means of transportation by air, water, highway or rail.

Motor Vehicle: any vehicle, machine, tractor, trailer or semi-trailer propelled or drawn by mechanical power and used to transport passengers or property.

Move-In: the date set for installation.

Move-Out: the date set for dismantling.

Mullen Test: a test of the strength of fiberboard or similar material used as a substitute for wood in making shipping containers.

Multi-Modal: goods movement between motor, air, sea and rail transportation; equipment that is compatible with multiple transportation systems; inter-modal.

Multi-Stop Body: a fully enclosed truck body with driver's compartment specifically designed for quick and easy entrance and exit.

Multi-Stop Delivery Truck: delivery truck with the driver and controls at the extreme front of the vehicle and designed with an integral driver and shipment compartment.

Munitions Carrier: a company that transports munitions by motor vehicle.

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Name on Operating Authority Documents: the name that a transportation provider, freight forwarder or property broker operates under.

National Motor Freight Classification (NMFC): a publication for motor carriers containing rules,descriptions and ratings on all goods moving in commerce.

Negotiable BOL: provides for goods delivery to a named enterprise or to their order (anyone they may designate), but only on surrender of proper endorsement and the BOL to the carrier or the carrier's agents; also an Order BOL.

Nested: packed one within another.

Net Charge: Net dollar amount billed to the debtor after reduced rates or charges through application of governing discounts, allowances, product rates, exception ratings, or any other reduction have been applied.

Net payload: payload weight excluding tare weight.

Net Square Footage: amount of space occupied by only the exhibits in a building; does not include aisles, registration area, lounges, etc.

Net Tare Weight: the weight of an empty trailer plus any permanently attached fixtures.

Net Ton: 2,000 pounds.

Net Weight: the weight of an article less it's packing and contents of the truck.

NMF: National Motor Freight Traffic Association Inc., Agent

NMFC: National Motor Freight Classification

Non-Certificated Carrier: an air carrier that is exempt from economic regulation.

Non-Integrated Carriers: carriers that receive most of their traffic from freight forwarders who handle the retail point-of-sale and pick-up-and-delivery functions.

Non-Negotiable BOL: provides for goods delivery to a named enterprise and to no one else; also a straight BOL.

Non-Powered Axle: an axle that supports part of the vehicle weight but does not transmit driving force to the wheels; a dead axle.

Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC): a firm that offers the same services as an ocean carrier, but does not own or operate a vessel; these firms usually act as consolidators, consolidating small shipments into full container loads. They then act as a shipper, tendering the containers to ocean common carriers.

Non-Vessel-Owning Common Carrier (NVOCC): a firm that consolidates and disperses international containers that originate at or are bound for inland ports.

Nose: the front of a container or trailer.

Not Elsewhere Specified (NES): if no rate for the specific product shipped appears in the air-freight tariff, then a general class rate applies that is usually higher than rates for specific products.

Not Otherwise Specified (NOS): if no rate for a specific product shipped appears in the ocean tariff, then a general class rate applies that is usually higher than rates for specific products.

Notice: information signifying the accomplishment of an act, such as the placement of a trailer for loading or unloading.

Notify Party: the name of an organization that should be notified when a shipment reaches its destination.

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Offer: to tender goods for transportation or to place trucks for loading or unloading; the time and date for draft payment.

Oilfield Hauler: a transportation provider authorized to transport oil field equipment.

Oilfield Body: heavily constructed platform-type truck body equipped with a rear end roller or bullnose adapted for winch loading; designed primarily for work in oilfields.

On-Board BOL: a BOL that indicates goods have been loaded aboard ship.

Open Top: a unit with sides but no roof.

Open Top Van Body: a truck or trailer with closed sides and ends; may be fully enclosed by a removable top or tarpaulin.

Operating Expense: the cost incident to the traffic handling.

Operating Ratio: the relation of operating expenses to gross receipts.

Optimum Cube: the highest level of cubic capacity use.

Order: a type of request for goods or services.

Order BOL: a negotiable document by which a transportation provider acknowledges receipt of goods and contracts for their movement. The surrender of the original straight BOL, properly endorsed, is required on shipment delivery.

Order Cycle: the time spent and the activities performed from the time an order is received to the actual delivery of the order to a customer.

Order Cycle Time: the time that elapses from order placement until order receipt that includes time for order transmittal, processing, preparation and shipping.

Order-Notify: a BOL term to surrender the original BOL before a shipment is released.

Origin: site where cargo begins movement.

Origin Carrier: the transportation line to which a shipper delivers a shipment; an initial carrier.

Originated Weight: the number of tonnes tendered at the initial (retail) point of sale

Outsourcing: buying a service from an outside firm, as opposed to performing it in-house.

Over Freight: a shipment separated from its waybill and bearing no identifying marks; astray freight.

Over On Bill: goods in excess of that specified by the freight bill of the BOL.

Over Without Bill: when a service center has a shipment without its BOL or freight bill.

Over, Short and Damaged(OS&D): a shipment that has been damaged or lost in transit or that arrives with more or fewer containers than originally shipped.

Overage: excess goods over the quantity thought to have been shipped; more than the quantity shown on the shipping document.

Overcharge: to charge more than the amount provided in the proper tariff.

Overheight Shipment: an item or items more than 8 feet tall.

Over-the-Road (OTR): inter-city movement.

Owner Code: three-letter transportation provider identification; Standard Carrier Abbreviation Code (SCAC).

Owner-Operator: a trucking operation in which a truck's owner is also the driver.

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Packing Case: ac ontainer for components for one-time use that is usually screwed or nailed closed; also a shipping case.

Packing Group: a degree of danger designator for hazardous material; packing Group I indicates great danger; II indicates medium danger; Ill indicates minor danger.

Packing Improper: any packing that does not comply with the classification rules and regulations for proper packing.

Packing List: a detailed inventory of items contained in a shipment.

Pallet: a wood, paper or metal platform usually with top and bottom on which packaged goods are placed to facilitate movement by shipment-handling equipment.

Palletized: stacked on pallets.

Palletized Shipment: a shipment tendered to and transported by a transportation provider on pallets (elevating truck pallets or platforms or lift-truck skids with or without standing sides or ends, but without tops).

Panel Body: small, fully enclosed truck body used for small package delivery.

Paper Rate: a published rate under which no traffic moves.

Participating Carrier(Tariff): a transportation line that uses a tariff issued by another transportation line or by a tariff-publishing agent.

Payment: the transfer of money, or other agreed-on medium, for goods or services.

Payment Collection: obtaining money, or other agreed-on medium, for goods or services.

Peak Demand: a time during which the greatest quantity of a product is bought.

Peddle Freight: shipments delivered from a service center to small, surrounding communities beyond normal deliver limits.

Peddle Run: pickup or delivery route a city driver travels.

Peninsula Booth: a booth at the end of an aisle, with aisles on three sides.

PerDiem: a charge, based on a fixed daily rate.

Perimeter Booth: a booth on an outside wall; also backwall booth.

Perishable freight: goods subject to decay or deterioration.

Permit: authority or permit granted to contract transportation providers by motor vehicle to operate in interstate commerce.

Pickup: service of a transportation provider in calling for and collecting goods to be transported over its line.

Pickup Body: small, open truck body.

Pickup or Delivery Allowance: a discount to the consignee for pickup or shipper for delivery of shipment to its service center.

Piece: a single envelope or box.

Piggyback: transportation of a highway trailer on a railroad flat car.

Pin Lock: a hard piece of iron, formed to fit on a trailer's pin,that locks in place with a key to prevent an unauthorized person from moving the trailer.

Pipe & Drape: pipe material with fabric draped from it to make side rails and a back wall of an exposition area.

Place Of Delivery: where a shipment leaves the care and custody of a transportation provider.

Place Utility: a value that logistics adds to a product by changing the product's location; transportation creates place utility.

Platform Body: a truck or trailer body with no sides or roof.

Point: a particular city, town, village or ZIP code that is used to apply rates.

Point of Entry: a port at which foreign goods are admitted into the receiving country.

Point of Origin: the service center that picks up goods from a shipper.

Pole Trailer: a trailer that uses a rigid pole as a structural member connecting the axle unit to the truck pulling it; used to haul long, rigid loads, such as logs, poles, pipe and other goods capable of resting as a beam between the axle unit and truck pulling the trailer.

Pooling: an agreement among transportation providers to share goods to be hauled or to share profits; the Interstate Commerce Act outlawed pooling agreements but the Civil Aeronautics Board has approved profit pooling agreements for air carriers during strikes.

Port Authority: a state or local government that owns,operates or otherwise provides wharf, dock and other service center investments at ports.

Port of Entry: port where foreign goods are admitted into a country; border stations that are maintained by some states to check truck compliance with their laws.

PowerEquipment: Any gasoline, diesel, electric or gas-driven equipment, including electric-powered cranes and lift-truck equipment.

Powered Axle: an axle that supports part of the vehicle weight and transmits a driving force to the wheels; a drive axle.

Prefab: a pre-built exhibit ready for installation.

Preferred Carrier: carriers recommended and promoted by the service contractor to handle transportation services for exhibitors at a trade show; also house or primary carrier.

Premises: the entire property or service center of a consignor, consignee or other party.

Prepaid: charges that have been paid or are to be paid at the point of shipment.

Prepaid and Paid: charges that are to be and have been paid at shipping point.

Prepaid Freight: goods a shipper pays the transportation provider for when merchandise is tendered for shipment that is not refundable if the merchandise does not arrive at the intended destination.

Prepay: to pay before or in advance.

Pricing Agreement: Published document between transportation provider and customer outlining agreed-on rates, discounts, allowances and terms.

Primary Carrier: transportation provider the service contractor recommends and promotes to handle transportation services for exhibitors at a trade show;also house or preferred carrier.

Prior to Tender of Delivery: before shipment has been loaded on delivery vehicle (where shipment is transferred to city delivery vehicle for delivery) or before shipment has been dispatched for delivery (where shipment is not transferred to city vehicle for delivery).

Private Carrier: a transportation line not engaged in general public business.

Private Residence: an apartment, church, school, camp and other such location not generally recognized as a commercial location.

Pro Forma Invoice: an invoice a supplier provides before the merchandise ships,informing the buyer of the kinds and quantities of goods to be sent, their value and specifications (weight, size, etc.)

PRO number: A 10-digit number assigned to each shipment which allows us to uniquely identify the shipment. "PRO" is an acronym for 'Progressively Rotating Order'.

Procurement: the act of acquiring goods or services.

Product: something that has been or is being produced.

Product Density: the density of a product in its packaging (weight divided by volume).

Product Description: the noun description of a product.

Product ID: a method of identifying a product without using a full description.

Productivity: a measure of resource use/efficiency defined as the sum of the outputs divided by the sum of theinputs.

Profit: to recover all fixed and variable costs plus some extra amount.

Profit Ratio: the percentage of profit to sales; that is, profit divided by sales.

Prohibited Articles: articles that will not be handled.

Proof of Delivery (POD): the delivery receipt copy of the freight bill.

Proper Shipping Name: the DOT-designated name of a hazardous material for highway transportation; for example, the proper shipping name for the refrigerant R-12 is dichlorodifluoromethane.

Proportional Rate: a rate to be used only as a factor in making a combination through rate; a basing rate.

Public Show: an exposition that is open to the public for a fee; also a consumer show.

Public warehouse receipt: The basic document a public warehouse manager issues as a receipt for the goods a company gives to him/her. The receipt can be either negotiable or nonnegotiable.

Public Warehousing: goods storage by a firm that offers storage service for a fee.

Pull System: warehouses control shipping requirements by placing individual orders for inventory with the central distribution center.

Pull Time: the time that a spotted trailer is attached to a tractor and departs for a destination.

Pulp Wood Body: truck of trailer body designed primarily to transport pulp wood.

Pup: a short semi-trailer, approximately 28 feet long, connected in tandem to another trailer for over-the-road travel; also double bottoms.

Purchase Order: a document a buyer creates to request a product or service from a seller. It contains the buyer's name and address, the ship-to address, the quantity, product code (and expected price), requested ship or receipt date and sales and shipping terms.

Purchase Price Discount: a pricing structure in which a seller offers a lower price if the buyer buys a larger quantity

Purchased Transportation: payment of local charges to a connecting transportation provider.

Push System: inventory deployment decisions made at a central distribution center that ships to its individual warehouses.

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Quasi-Modal: transportation in some form or degree.

Quotation: an offer to sell goods or services at a stated price and at stated terms.

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Rag Top: an open-top trailer using a tarpaulin for a covering.

Rail Carrier: an enterprise that offers service via rail carriage.

Rail Waybill: the BOL rail carriers issue to their customers.

Range/Payload Curve: the trade-off between flight distance and payload; beyond a certain distance, an aircraft must either carry less payload to carry more fuel or make a refueling stop to carry more payload.

Rate: A charge per unit of measurement

Rate: the charge for transporting goods.

Rate Base Number: number used to determine rates applicable between two points.

Rate Basis: a formula containing the specific factors used in making a rate; a rate can be based on several factors (weight, classification, distance, measure, packaging).

Rate Basis Number: the distance between two rate-basis points.

Rate-Basis Point: point on which rate is made or at which the rate is divided; point to which other points are assigned for purposes of determining rates.

Rate Break Point: one of the places used to construct a rate; place where a rate is divided.

Rate Scale: a table of rates graduated according to distances or zones.

Rating: the class to which an article is assigned for applying transportation charges; see also 'Classification Rating'.

Ratio, Current: the relation of operating expenses to gross receipts; operating ratio.

Reasonable Rate: a rate that is high enough to cover the carrier's cost but not high enough to enable the carrier to realize monopolistic profits.

Reasonableness: the requirement that rates not be higher than necessary to reimburse the carrier for the cost of transportation and a fair profit.

Rebate: an illegal form of discounting or refunding that has the net effect of lowering the tariff price; malpractice.

Receipt Location: a location that will receive goods.

Receipt Point: the place where goods enter the care and custody of the transportation provider.

Receiver: an enterprise that receives goods/services.

Reciprocity: the granting of privileges by a state to vehicles or vehicle owners from another state in return for similar privileges; these privileges may be complete or partial exemption from paying fees and motor vehicle taxes.

Reconsignment: a change in routing made before goods arrivae at their billed destination; or any change made after goods arrive at their billed destination.

Recooper: repair damaged cartons or containers.

Red Label: a label required on shipments of articles of an inflammable character.

Reefer: a refrigerated container.

Refund: repayment of excess shipping charges.

Regional Carrier: an air carrier, usually certified, that operates in a particular region of the country and has annual operating revenues of less than $75 million.

Regional Show: a show targeted to attendees from a specific geographical area that may be a stand-alone event or a local version of a national show.

Regular Common Carrier: a company that serves the general public and is authorized to transport general goods over regular routes between fixed service centers.

Relay: to transfer containers or trailers in a carrier's network.

Relay Terminal: a motor carrier service center that facilitates the substitution of one driver for another who has driven the maximum hours permitted.

Release Approval: a document to advise that goods are available for further movement or action.

Release Forms: forms that permit goods' removal from exhibition during show hours.

Released: a condition limiting a transportation provider's liability for loss or damage to an amount agreed on by shipper and transportation provider.

Released Rate: a special, low rate for shipments on which a transportation provider's liability for loss or damage is limited to an agreed amount.

Released Value: value of goods the shipper sets in consideration of the rate to be charged.

Released Value Not Exceeding (RVNX): the term used to limit the value of goods transported; the limitation refers to transportation provider liability when paying a claim for lost or damaged goods.

Released-Value Rate: rates based on a shipment's value; the maximum transportation provider liability for damage is less than the full value, and in return, the transportation provider offers a lower rate.

Reliability: a transportation provider selection criterion that considers the transportation provider transit-time variation; the consistency of the transit time the transportation provider provides.

Remittance: funds from one party to another as payment.

Reportable Quantity (RQ: a hazardous substance the DOT defines with specific quantity limits per package that requires notification of the National Response Center if the specified quantity is released in a spill.

Request for Proposal (RFP): a request given to contractors to begin the bid process for a contract.

Requested Arrival Date: the date the shipment must arrive at its destination.

Reshipment: goods reshipped under conditions that do not make the act subject to the transportation provider's reconsignment rules and charges.

Restricted Articles: articles that are handled only under certain conditions; U.S. Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations and Air Transport Restricted Articles Circular 6-D. Some restricted articles may be classified as dangerous goods when transported internationally by air.

RETL: Reddaway Inc.

Return Goods Management(RGM): coordination and management of goods returned to a location a shipper designates.

Return On Total Capital Expense: costs associated with the return on investment to shareholders and debt holders.

Return On Total Capital: return on investment to shareholders and debt holders.

Return to Shipper: a shipment returned to the location it was originally tendered to the transportation provider.

Revenue Bill: carries freight charges, name of shipper, name of consignee, number of pieces shipped, destination of shipment, weight of shipment; a freight bill.

Rig: a truck, tractor, semi-trailer truck and full trailer or other combinations.

Rigger: skilled craftsperson or laborer that handles and assembles machinery, steel construction and heavy materials.

Riggers Body: a truck body similar to an oil field body designed primarily for rigging work.

Roll-On-Roll-Off(RO-RO): a type of ship designed to permit cargo to be driven on at origin and off at destination; used extensively for moving automobiles.

Route: the course or direction that a shipment moves; to designate the course or direction a shipment shall move; the transportation providers through which a shipment moves.

Rules and Conditions: a publication that includes extended services, rules and exceptions to NMFC items and conditions of service for shipments.

Running Gear: complementary equipment for service center and over-the-road handling containers.

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Salvage: unused material that has a market value and can be sold.

Sanction: an embargo imposed by one government against another.

Satellite: a service center that receives inbound freight from a breakbulk center for delivery and sends outbound shipments that have been picked up to the breakbulk center; an end-of-line.

Scale of Rates: numerous rates adjusted with reaction to each other.

Schedule: a publication containing minimum charges, rules and regulations of operations.

Schedule B Number: shipment classification for U.S. exports; see also 'Harmonized System'.

Schedule Information: data concerning the service an enterprise provides.

Scheduled Delivery Date (SDD): a delivery date generated based on shipping date and optimum shipping time.

Scrap: unusable material that has no market value.

Script Sheet: form of statement a driver carries that shows essential details of all shipments loaded in the truck.

Seal: a device for fastening or locking the doors of a truck.

Seal Number: The identifier assigned to the tag used to secure or mark the locking mechanism on closed containers.

Second Destination: the final destination after reaching a port of entry.

Sectional Tariff: a tariff made in several parts. Each section contains different rates among many of the same points with provisions for alternative application.

Semi-trailer: a vehicle designed to be drawn by another vehicle and constructed so that some part of its weight and that of its load rests on, or is carried by, a towing vehicle.

Service: a defined, regular pattern of calls a transportation provider makes picking up and discharging shipments.

Service Contract: a contract between a shipper and an ocean carrier or conference in which a shipper makes a commitment to provide a minimum quantity of shipments over a fixed time period. The ocean carrier or conference also commits to a rate or rate schedule and a defined service level, such as space, transit item, port rotation or other features.

Service Desk: a location for ordering or reconfirming services a general service and/or specialty contractors provide; where contractor customer service personnel and transportation representatives are situated.

Service Levels: a set standard of operating procedures and outcomes as agreed on by one or more enterprises involved in a transaction.

Service Provider: an enterprise that offers and supplies goods or services.

Service Recovery: any and all efforts, short of a cargo claim, taken to satisfy a customer after a product or service failure.

Set: Two doubles trailers.

Set-Up: complete article assembly or an assembled article; not knocked down.

Setup Cost: the cost incurred in staging a production line to produce a different item.

Ship Agent: a liner company or tramp ship operator representative that facilitates ship arrival, clearance, loading and unloading and fee payment while at a specific port.

Ship Broker: a firm that is a go-between for a tramp ship owner and a chartering consignor or consignee.

Shipment: one or more products having the same shipper or consignee; an airbill or waybill representing carriage of one or multiple pieces.

Shipment Available Date: the date a shipment will be available for transportation.

Shipment Point: a specific site from where goods will depart for movement.

Shipper: company or individual who initiates goods transport.

Shipper Load and Count: the process by which a shipper places goods into a trailer at his own site with no opportunity for a joint check of the goods; the shipper is responsible for properly loading and verifying the goods being shipped.

Shipper's Export Declaration: a document used to control shipments of sensitive goods and shipments destined to unfriendly countries.

Shipper's Instructions: communication from the shipper to its agent or to the transportation provider.

Shipper's Letter of Instruction (SLI): used in lieu of a BOL.

Shipper's Agent: a firm that primarily matches up small shipments, particularly single-traffic, piggyback loads, to permit shippers to use twin-trailer piggyback rates.

Shipping Case: a container for components for one-time use that is usually screwed or nailed closed; also a packing case.

Shipping Instructions: a document detailing the cargo and its movement requirements.

Shipping Order: a transportation company's copy of the BOL.

Shipping Papers: papers used in connection with movement of goods.

Short Ton: 2,000 pounds; a net ton.

Shortage: a deficiency in quantity shipped.

Short-Haul Discrimination: charging more for a shorter haul than for a longer haul over the same route in the same direction and for the same product.

Show Break: the time specified for the close of an exhibition and the beginning of dismantling.

Show Decorator: a craftsperson used to install drape, fabric, signs, etc.; also a general service contractor.

Show Manager: a person in charge of an entire exposition; see also exhibit manager.

Show Producer: an individual or company that manages expositions.

Shrink Wrap: heat-treated polyethylene that conforms to a package or packages on a pallet.

Shunting: diversion of carts from a drag line.

Sight Draft: a method of payment used when a shipper retains control over the goods until the buyer pays; a collect shipment.

Single Shipment Minimum Charge (SSMC): When a single shipment is tendered at one time and place, the shipment is subject to a Single Shipment Minimum Charge.

Site: a specific site at or on the premises of a consignor, consignee or other party.

Skid: a wooden platform on which heavy articles or packaged goods are placed to permit handling by shipment handling equipment.

Sleeper (Cab): a truck-tractor or motor-truck cab incorporating bed or bunk.

Sleeper Team: two drivers who operate a truck equipped with a sleeper berth; while one driver sleeps to accumulate mandatory off-duty time, the other driver operates the vehicle.

Slider: a trailer with a rear axle set that may be moved forward to the rear of the trailer to adjust the turning radius or weight balance for the type of load being hauled.

Sliding Fifth Wheel: a fifth-wheel assembly that can be moved forward or backward on the truck-tractor to obtain desired load distribution between tractor and trailer axles.

Sliding Tandem: a two-axle assembly that can be moved forward or backward on the trailer body to obtain desired load distribution.

Space Rate: the cost per square foot or per square meter for exhibit space.

Special Handling: requirement for extra labor, equipment or time in delivery.

Special Service Tariff: a tariff containing charges and rules governing extra services, such as switching, storage, demurrage, reconsignment and diversion.

Special-Product Warehouse: a warehouse used to store products requiring unique care.

Split Pickup or Delivery: picking up or delivering volume destination points.

Spot: to move a trailer, boxcar or pallet into place for loading or unloading.

Spot Time: the time that a trailer is placed at a site designated by the consignor, consignee or other party.

Spotter: one who parks vehicles brought in by regular drivers in a service center yard; a supervisor who checks driver's activities on the road.

Spotting: to place, detach and leave a trailer unaccompanied by a tractor or power unit at a site designated by the consignor, consignee or other party.

Spread Tandem: a two-axle assembly in which the axles are separated more than conventional assemblies.

Stage: the act of finding goods at a specific location to prepare for movement.

Stake Body: a truck or trailer platform body with readily removable stakes; the stakes may be joined by chains, slats or panels.

Standard CarrierAbbreviation Code (SCAC): three-letter carrier identification; an owner code.

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC): a numerical code system used to classify products and services.

Standard Rate: a rate established by direct routes from one point or another in relation to which the rates via other routes between same points are made.

Standard Route: line or lines that maintain standard rates.

StandardTrailer: A trailer that measures in excess of 29 feet in length and contains less than 54 lineal feet of loading space.

Standard Two Letter (STL): a code designation for airlines.

Standard Unit: a 10'x10' exhibitor space.

State Refrigeratio nCharge: a fixed charge per truckload, per package, per 100 pounds or per ton of goods, for providing refrigeration service.

Statute of Limitation: a statement in a BOL contract that places a limit on the time in which claims or suit may be instituted.

Steering Axle: a powered or non-powered axle through which directional control of a vehicle is applied; a vehicle may have more than one steering axle.

Stevedore: one who loads or unloads ships.

Stopping in Transit to Finish Loading or Unloading: an accessorial service of halting volume shipments to finish loading or partially unload at points between origin and final destination.

Storage: a charge made on stored property.

Storage Charges: payment due for storage.

Storage-in-Transit: storage of property at a point other than the origin or destination of a shipment under application of a through rate.

Store Door Delivery: the movement of goods to a consignee's place of business.

Stowage, Freight: goods stored or packed as in a service center or on board a truck.

Stowed Density: the density of a loaded airplane (net payload divided by cubic capacity); stowed density is always lower than product density because of aircraft loading inefficiencies (unused space).

Straight Bill of Lading: a non-negotiable document by which a carrier acknowledges receipt of freigh tand contracts for its movement. Surrender of the original straight BOL is not required, except when necessary to identify the consignee.

Straight Truck: the power unit and storage area comprise one vehicle; a tractor operating without trailer; a bob-tail.

Stripping: removing goods from a trailer; devanning.

Stuffing: loading goods into a container.

Subcontractor: an individual or company a general contractor retains to provide services.

Subsidy: the economic benefit a government grants goods or services producer to strengthen their competitive position.

Supplement (Tariff): a publication containing additions or changes in a tariff.

Supplemental Carrier: an air carrier having no time schedule or designated route; a charter or contract service.

Supply Chain: the logistical sequence of activities from raw materials delivery to delivery of the finished products.

Supply Chain Management: the integration of the supplier, distributor and customer logistics requirements into one cohesive process that includes demand planning, forecasting, materials requisition, order processing, inventory allocation, order fulfillment, transportation services, receiving, invoicing and payment.

Surcharge: a charge of more than the usual or customary charge; transportation providers may impose a fuel surcharge.

Surety Bond: a bond an importer posts to guarantee U.S. Customs duty payments.

Surtax: an additional or extra tax.

Switch Engine: a railroad engine that moves railcars short distances in a service center and plant.

Switching Company: a railroad that moves railcars short distances; switching companies connect two main-line railroads to facilitate through movement of shipments.

System: a set of interacting elements, variable, parts or objects that are functionally related to each other and form a coherent group.

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Tachograph: a device used in a cab to automatically record miles driven, number of stops, speed and other factors during a trip.

Tail: the rear of a container or trailer.

Tandem Axle: an assembly of two axles, either of which may be powered.

Tank Body: a fully enclosed truck or tractor body designed to transport fluids.

Tank Trailer: a fully enclosed truck trailer designed to transport bulk fluids.

Tank Truck Carrier: a transportation provider that is authorized to carry petroleum, chemical, liquid or dry goods in bulk by means of specialized tank truck units.

Tare Weight: the weight of a container and the material used for packing. Subtracting tare weight from gross payload yields net payload.

Tariff: a schedule of transportation charges.

Tariff: Transportation provider's published rates, accessorial charges and rules.

Teardown: dismantling or disassembly for removal.

Temporary In Bond (TIB): a bond an importer posts to avoid paying duties on goods that are to be re-exported.

Tender: to offer goods for transportation or to offer to place trucks for loading or unloading; the time and date for payment of a draft.

Terminal: a building for handling and temporary storing goods pending transfer between locations.

Terminal Carrier: the transportation line delivering a shipment at its destination.

Terminal Delivery Allowance: a reduced rate that a transportation provider offers in return for the shipper or consignee tendering or picking up goods at the transportation provider's service center.

Terminal Operator: an enterprise responsible for operating service centers for one or more modes of transportation.

Terminal Pass: a document a service center operator provides to the delivering transportation provider to allow admission into the operator's facility.

Terminal Receipt: a document used to accept materials or equipment at a service center to provide the delivering transprotation provider with proof of delivery and the service center verification of receipt.

Terms of Sale: the point at which sellers have fulfilled their obligations to buyers.

Third Party: a payer of the charges on the BOL that is neither shipper nor consignee.

Third-Party Logistics: a firm that supplies logistics services to other companies.

Third-Structure Tax: registration fees and gasoline taxes are called the first two structures of highway user taxation; any other type of tax is a third-structure tax.

Third-Party: a party other than the Consignor or Consignee

ThroughBOL: a BOL that covers shipment by more than one carrier at a fixed rate for the entire service.

Through Rate: a rateapplicable from a point of origin to destination; it may be either a point rate or a combination of two or more rates.

Tilt Cab: a cab-over-engine truck or tractor cab that provides ready access to the engine.

Tilt-Bed Trailer: a truck trailer with one or more axles centered on a platform-type body that may be manipulated to form a loading/unloading ramp.

Time and Materials: a method of charging for services on a cost-plus basis.

Time Draft: a method of payment where the buyer agrees to pay for the shipment within a specified time.

Time-Critical: guaranteed delivery by the earliest possible time.

Time-Definite: guaranteed delivery by a specific time (not necessarily as fast as possible).

TL: Truckload. A quantity of goods weighing 20,000 pounds or more, or which occupiesthe full visible capacity of a Doubles Trailer or a Standard Trailer, or whose TL rate or rating is subject to a minimum weight of 20,000 pounds or more.

Tolerance: an allowancemade for difference in weights because of variations in scales or the inherent nature of goods.

Toll: a charge to use a structure, such as a bridge or turnpike.

Ton-Mile: a unit used to compare shipments earnings or expenses; the amount earned from or the cost of hauling a ton of goods one mile.

Tonnage: the number of tons of goods handled.

Tonne: one metric ton, equivalent to 1,000 kilograms or approximately 2,205 pounds. A Boeing 747 freighter typically carries around 100 metric tons of freight, net of tare.

Trace: to follow a shipment's movement.

Tracer: a request that a transportation provider find a shipment to speed its movement or to establish delivery; a request for an answer to a previously filed claim or other communication.

Tracking: a system of recording shipment movements from origin to destination.

Tractor: a mechanically powered unit that propels or draws a trailer or trailers.

Trade: a geographic area or specific route transportation providers serve.

Trade Association: an organization that promotes members' products and/or services.

Trade Lane: the combination of the origin and destination points.

TradeShow: an exposition for members of a common or related industry; not open to the general public.

TradeShow Trash: any person associated with the set-up or break down of a tradeshow.

Trader: an enterprise that buys and sells goods/services.

Trading Partner: any party, either company or person, involved in the supply-chain order, fulfillment or shipping process.

Traffic: persons and property that transportation lines carry.

Traffic Flow: the direction or path most users take.

Traffic Management: buying and controlling transportation services for a shipper, a consignee or both.

Trailer: A Doubles Trailer or a Standard Trailer.

Trailer: mobile units with or without wheels used to transport property.

Trailer Capacity: an amount of goods that can be carried in a truck or trailer expressed in terms of weight and/or volume.

Trailer Interchange: transfer of trailer and lading from one transportation provider to another.

Trailer on Flat Car (TOFC): carriage of intermodal containers when the container is still attached to the chassis and the chassis and container are loaded on a rail flat car; piggyback.

Tramp: an international water carrier that has no fixed route or published schedule.

Transit Privilege: a transportation service that permits the shipper to stop the shipment in transit to perform a function that changes the product's physical characteristics, but to still pay the through rate.

Transit Time: the total time that elapses between a shipment's delivery and its pickup.

Transmittal Letter: a letter from the shipper to its agent that lists the particulars of a shipment, the documents being transmitted and instructions for the disposition of those documents.

Transport: to move goods from one place to another.

Transportation and Exportation (T&E): authorization for in-bond shipment transportation through the United States for export to another country.

Transshipment: transferring and reloading goods from one container, trailer or vessel to another; transferring and reloading goods from one mode of transportation to another.

Truckload (TL): the quantity of goods required to fill a truck; the quantity of goods weighing the maximum legal amount for a particular type of truck. When used in connection with shipping rates, the quantity of goods necessary to qualify a shipment for a truckload rate.

Truckload Service: service in select lanes for FVC or 20,000–45,000-pound shipments.

Turn Around: truck run in which the driver returns to the origin point immediately after his vehicle is unloaded and re-loaded.

Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit (TEU): a unit of measure for container, trailer or service center capacity.

Twin Screw: a truck or tractor with two rear axles, both driven by the engine.

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Ullage: the space in a drum or tank not filled with liquid.

UN Number: a four-digit number assigned to hazardous material required by the DOT for highway transportation, by IMDG for water transit and by ICAO for air transit. It is used to designate the emergency response procedure in the event of a spill or release.

Unclaimed Goods: goods that have not been called for by the consignee or owner.

Undercharge: to charge less than the proper amount.

Undercubing: using lower-than-published rates to assess shipping charges.

Unit Load Device (ULD): air freight containers and pallets.

Unit of Traffic: the average number of tons of goods hauled one mile.

Unitization: consolidating individual items into a single shipping unit.

Unloading: the surrender of the BOL on shipments billed 'To Order'; payment of lawful charges to the transportation provider when required before delivery; notification that the vehicle is unloaded and ready for forwarding; signing of delivery receipt.

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Validation: BOL authentication; when a BOL becomes effective.

Valuation Charges: transportation charges to shippers who declare a value of goods higher than the value of the transportation provider's limits of liability.

Valuation, Actual: actual value of goods the shippers must show on the BOL where the rate applied depends on that fact.

Valuation, Released: value of goods set by shipper as the limit of the provider's liability in consideration of therate to be charged.

Value-of-Service Pricing: pricing according to the value of the product being transported; also third-degree price discrimination; demand-oriented pricing; charging what the traffic will bear.

Van Body: fully enclosed body designed to transport miscellaneous shipments.

Vanning: stowing goods in a trailer or container.

Variable Cost: expenses that are related to a level of activity in a short period of time.

Vehicle: any vehicle or combination of vehicles handled as one unit, not less than 35 feet in length, propelled or drawn by a single power unit; a vehicle that consists of a power unit and two or more trailers or containers, not more than 60 feet in length.

Vendor: a firm or individual that supplies goods or services; the seller.

Vessel: a floating structure designed for transport.

Volume Rate: rates that are specifically made subject to a minimum weight of 10,000 pounds or more.

Voyage: the trip designation (trade route and origin/destination)identifier, usually numerically sequential.

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Waiting Time: the time during which employees can't work because of factors beyond their control and for which they are paid; also dead time,down time, idle time or allowed time.

Warehouse: a place where goods are received and stored.

Warehouse Entry: deferment of duties until goods are required.

Warehouse Receipt: a receipt given for goods placed in a warehouse.

Warehouseman: one who receives goods and stores merchandise in his warehouse.

Warehousing: goods storage.

Waybill: description of goods sent with a common carrier freight shipment; a freight bill.

Weight Break: the shipment volume at which the less-than-truckload charges equal the truckload charges at the minimum weight.

Weight Cargo: cargo on which transportation charges are assessed on the basis of weight.

Weight Out: to use the weight capacity of a trailer or truck without necessarily using the full cubic capacity.

Weight Sheet: itemized list furnished by shippers to weighing bureaus showing articles in each consignment.

Wharf: any wharf, berth, pier, quay, landing or other structure to which a vessel may make fast and that area or structure (other than a public utility warehouse) immediately adjacent, which is used for transit storage, loading, unloading, assembling or distribution of goods or merchandise.

Wharfage: charges that pier personnel assess for shipment handling.

Without Recourse: a clause that signifies that the instrument is passed onto subsequent holders without liability to the endorser in the event of nonpayment or nondelivery.

Wrecker Body: a truck body designed to transport disabled vehicles and equipped with a means for hoisting and towing such vehicles.